The intelligence that is not natural or human and is derived is known as Artificial. With the Invention of computers and machines their capability to perform various
tasks started growing exponentially. Humans with such a short span of time are well ahead of time with the development of the various powers of computer systems and
their diverse working domains. This scope has helped in increasing the speed of technological advancement and reducing human errors with respect to time.
There is a section of Computer Science that focuses on developing machines or computers that are as good enough as humans in terms of intelligence and this branch is popularly known as Artificial Intelligence.
There are definitions of Artificial Intelligence but according to the father of Artificial Intelligence, John McCarthy, this process as defined by him is “The science and
engineering of making machines especially computer programs who match the intelligence of an above- average human.
Artificial Intelligence is a skilled technique of making a computer, a computer-controlled robot, or software that has the capacity in terms of thinking that match the intelligence of an intelligent human being.
Artificial Intelligence also popularly known as AI is accomplished by studying human behavior and the human brain carefully. The human brain is carefully monitored to understand its stimulus in terms of learning, decision making, working, while trying to solve a problem and many more of their behaviors. The cumulative outcomes of this study are studied thoroughly and these outcomes form the basis of developing intelligent software and systems.
In the early days of exploiting computer systems and its computing capabilities, there must have been some trigger or curiosity of humans that would have made him wonder and think, “Can a machine also think and behave like humans? If such a thing is possible, how would be the situation? Thus, the development of AI might have started with the intention of creating similar intelligence in machines equivalent to that of humans.
To Create Expert Systems – The thought must be to have systems or machines that would exhibit intelligent behavior, learn, demonstrate, explain,
and advicse its users.
To Implement Human Intelligence in Machines – Making a replica of a system model that is similar in characteristics of humans that can think, understand, learn, and behave like humans.
What Contributes to AI?
Artificial intelligence is a combination of science and technology imbibing topics like Computer Science, Biology, Psychology, Linguistics, Mathematics, and Engineering. A major thrust of AI is in the development of computer functions associated with human intelligence, such as reasoning, learning, and problem -solving.
The following one or many areas may be the possible contributor in building such an intelligent system.
Programming without AI
1) A computer program without AI can answer the specific questions it is meant to solve.
2) Any kind of changes or alterations in the program may change its structure.
3) Any Modification required is not easy and is not done immediately. It requires its own space and care of not affecting the program adversely.
Programming with AI
1)A computer program with AI can answer all those generic questions it is meant to solve.
2) AI programming helps in imbibing new modifications or changes by collecting highly independent pieces of information together. Hence you can modify even a minute piece of information of program without affecting its structure.
3)The process of program alteration is easy and quick.
Knowing the AI Technique?
What makes artificial intelligence as a subject interesting is its characteristics. In the practical world, the knowledge of the techniques has some unwelcomed properties −
1. The volume of Artificial Intelligence is huge and beyond imagination,
2. There is no structuring for this system.
3. It is not constant and keeps changing all time.
AI Technique is such a mechanism that can be used to organize and make use of the Knowledge efficiently in such a way that −
1. It should be perceivable by the people who provide it.
2. It should be easy to modify so that the errors can be rectified without much guidance.
3. Though the system is incomplete and inaccurate at time it should be helpful in most of the situations.
Applications of Artificial Intelligence
AI and its concepts have been dominant in various fields such as −
Gaming − Strategic games such as chess, poker, tic-tac-toe, etc. make use of AI very well such that the machine can think of a large number of possible positions based on heuristic knowledge.
Natural Language Processing − It is possible to interact with the computer that understands natural language spoken by humans. Expert Systems – Ai is used in some applications which integrate machine, software, and special information to impart reasoning and advising. These systems provide explanations and advice to users.
Vision Systems – AI can be used in the Vision System that understands, interpret, and comprehend visual input on the computer. Let’s understand this with a few examples.
1. It can be used by spying Airplane to take photographs, which are used to figure out spatial information or map of the areas.
2. Doctors can use this clinical expert system to diagnose the patient.
3. It is useful to the police department where in this computer software t can recognize the face of criminal with the stored portrait made by forensic artists.
Speech Recognition – AI can play a crucial role in making hearing aids. The system can hear and comprehend the language in terms of sentences and their meanings while a human talks to it. An added advantage is that this AI influenced system can understand different accents, slang words making it easy to customize it. It can also handle the noise in the background and also has the ability to change in human noise due to cold or other external stimuli.
Handwriting Recognition − Handwriting recognition software along with AI can read the text written on paper by a pen or on screen by a stylus. Its ability to recognize the shapes of the letters and convert them into editable text makes it a handy feature.
Intelligent Robots − Robots are designed in a way to take command from humans and work accordingly. They have sensors that detect physical data from the real world such as light, heat, temperature, movement, sound, bump, and pressure. They are well supported by processors that are efficient, multiple sensors and huge memory, to exhibit intelligence. Addition to this they are made capable of learning from their mistakes and adapt and react to the environmental stimulus.